What Education is Not

It may be clear to most critical pedagogues and some educators, but not so much to policy makers, that education is not equivalent to learning. Learning, as Bonnie Stewart recently said, is an individual and personal process, fluid and ongoing, whereas education is systematic, based in institutions that hope to bring about learning, but do not necessarily succeed in doing so. Educational systems differ in different countries and within the same country, and generalizations about education and learning are often unhelpful. For example, what is problematic at kindergarten may be different from high school, different from college and vocational...

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